DYNOW, ẒEVI ELIMELECH (1785–1841), ḥasidic ẓaddik in Dynow, Galicia, often known after his main work as "the author of Benei Yissakhar" (Zolkiew, 1850). He was a disciple of Ẓevi Hirsch of zhidachov , jacob isaac "ha-Ḥozeh" ("the seer") of Lublin, and the Maggid israel of kozienice . Ẓevi Elimelech served as rabbi in Strzyzow, Halicz, Dynow, and Munkacs. His total opposition to Haskalah and philosophy was evidenced in both his devotion to Kabbalah as the essence of Judaism and his statement that "there is no knowledge, either in the realm of science or philosophy, which is not alluded to in the Torah (which is higher than the intellect)" (Benei Yissakhar, Sec. 2:88). He considered philosophical enquiry a waste of time and of soul. Rational reason should not be sought for the mitzvot, but they should be observed with love, as divine decrees, whether rational or not, without questioning or seeking proofs. Man must have faith "even in two opposite (commands of God) where the intellect cannot solve the contradiction" (ibid., Sec. 1, 73). The task of the ẓaddik is of utmost importance since by means of the high spiritual level he attains he may help to unite the upper and lower worlds. Ẓevi Elimelech differentiated between two types of ẓaddikim: the perfect one, "the servant of God" (eved adonai) and the one who only "worships God" (oved Adonai). Worship of God must combine both love and fear. Fear corresponds to ẓimẓum and love corresponds to hitpashetut ("expansion"). Just as there can be no stability or survival for worlds without ẓimẓum, so if it were not for fear, man would dissolve in ecstasy "and the light of the soul would depart from its earthly container." Fear of Divine Majesty – in contradistinction to fear of punishment – is the acme of faith. A man "to whom God gives knowledge (binah) is enabled to retreat within himself directing   his thought to his Creator also while in the company of other men." Dynow thus reformulates Naḥmanides ' thesis (commentary on Deuteronomy 11:20). Dynow's writings comprise (1) kabbalistic: glosses to the commentary of eleazar of Worms on Sefer Yeẓirah (Przemysl, 1888); commentary on the beginning of Eleazar's Sefer Ḥokhmat ha-Nefesh (Lemberg, 1876); glosses to the Zohar (Przemysl, 1899); Ma'yan Gannim, a commentary on Or ha-Ḥayyim (1848) by Joseph Jabetz; Regel Yesharah (Lemberg, date of publication not known), an alphabetical commentary on names and concepts on the basis of the kabbalistic system of isaac luria . (2) Homiletic and exegetical works which became popular among Ḥasidim, among them Derekh Pikkudekha (Lemberg, 1851), homilies on the mitzvot; Igra de-Kallah (Lemberg, 1868), homilies on the Torah; Igra de-Pirka (Lemberg, 1858); Likkutei Maharẓa (Przemysl, 1885), on the Torah and the Prophets; Keli ha-Ro'im (Lemberg, 1808), commentary on Obadiah; Devarim Neḥmadim (Przemysl, 1885); Maggid Ta'alumah (Przemysl, 1876), novellae to tractate Berakhot; Rei'aḥ Duda'im (Munkacs, 1879), on tractate Megillah; Ve-Heyeh Berakhah (Przemysl, 1875), commentary on Mishnah Berakhot; Berakhah Meshulleshet (Przemysl, 1896, commentary on the Mishnah); Tamkhin de-Oraita (Munkacs, 1926). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Horodezky, ḥasidut, 2 (19534), 201–18; idem, in: Meẓudah (1948), 284–9; Berger, Eser Ẓaḥẓaḥot (1909), 106–118; M. Bodek, Seder ha-Dorot (1927), 67; L. Grossmann, Shem u-She'erit (1943), 21–23; R. Mahler, Ha-Ḥasidut ve-ha-Haskalah (1961), index; N.Z. Horowitz, Ohel Naftali (1964), 98–99.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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